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|The axis, also known as C2, is the second cervical vertebra and is located between the atlas (C1) and C3. This is characterised by the presence of a superior protrusion, known as odontoid process (or dens), which articulates with C1, and a posterior spinous process, which serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments. |
The axis also has two superior articular facets that articulates with the atlas, and two lateral transverse processes containing triangular foramina for the passage of the vertebral veins, arteries and nerves to the brain. Along with the atlas (C1), the axis is responsible for enabling rotation of the head, and flexion, extension and lateral flexion of the head.